The Fuller Building, 41 East 57th Street, 9th Floor New York City, NY 10022 , United States Call Seller 212.535.8810

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Portrait of Carol Moon Gardner (1909–1964)

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  • Description
    Signed (at lower left): WINOLD/ REISS

    French modern art made a dramatic entrance into on America in 1913 at the famous Armory Show in New York City. In that same year, German twentieth-century art also arrived, with no fanfare, in the person of Winold Reiss, who disembarked on October 29, 1913 from the S.S. Imperator onto the dock at Ellis Island in New York harbor. Reiss was already twenty-seven years old when he came to America, thoroughly educated in a rigorous and inclusive heritage of German art that reflected decades of central European modernism.

    Reiss was proficient in graphics, fabric design, interior decoration, mural and poster art, as well as landscape and portrait painting. When he first arrived in America he established himself across a broad range of these interests, working in illustration, poster design, interior decoration, and as a teacher. His first major interior commission, the Busy Lady Bakery in New York City, strongly recalls the design work a decade earlier of Josef Hoffman in Vienna and Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow. While fellow German immigrants were among Reiss’ first commercial patrons, by 1915 he had been invited to lecture on the German poster at the Art Students League in New York. Anti-German feeling stirred up by America’s entry into World War I derailed some of Reiss’ projects, but still, in 1914 and 1915, he designed covers for Scribner’s magazine.

    None of this, however, was what had drawn Reiss to America. The story goes that he came to America to live out his childhood fantasies. Like many other German boys, Reiss had been captivated in his youth by tales of the American “wild west” widely circulated in the imaginative accounts of the German author Karl May. Numerous explanations can be put forth to explain Reiss’ emigration to America in 1913. The combined reasons must have been compelling enough to leave behind a pregnant wife (she and his son, Tjark, born in December 1913, joined him in America in 1914). These reasons included, no doubt, the war clouds over Europe, the increasing militarism of German society; and the large number of artists already working in Germany. Still, for Reiss, America meant the Indian.

    In January 1920, Reiss realized his dream of traveling west to Native American country. He went with a student to the Blackfoot Reservation in Browning, Montana. Thus began a relationship with Native Americans that lasted all of his life. Reiss produced thirty-six portraits of Blackfoot Indians in the winter of 1920. When he exhibited these in New York in 1920, at the E.F. Hanfstaengl Galleries, they were purchased as a group by Dr. Philip Cole, a native of Montana. In October1920, Reiss made a sketching trip to Mexico, painting portraits and landscapes. As he traveled, Reiss’ style began to reflect the influence of the aesthetics, color palette, and patterns of Native American visual culture. He blended this into his now hyphenated German-American vocabulary, reaching for an artistic language expressed in the most universally accessible terms that would convey the respect he felt for all his subjects.

    The final major influence on Reiss’ style came in 1921, when, taking his eight-year-old son with him, he made his only return trip to Germany, where he visited his mother and sister. From September to the following May, Reiss traveled through Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, and Czechoslovakia. In Oberammergau he made nineteen portraits of actors in the passion plays. In Sweden he sketched country people; and in Germany, returning to his paternal roots, he drew thirty-eight Black Forest residents. As importantly, he visited Munich and Berlin and saw the work of the Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) artists, whose fidelity to life as it is seen and to the social conditions of the people confirmed him in his own objectivity. When Reiss returned to America he produced a series of “Imaginatives,” composite images of New York (and sometimes specifically Harlem) nightlife. Reiss’ work, however, steered clear of the anger and direct political engagement of the German artists. He found positive energy in his city scenes and high spiritual values in his pre-industrial, pre-capitalist peasants.

    One of the most notable aspects of Reiss’ modernism, and a point on which he emphatically parted ways from artists who prized unintelligibility as proof of aesthetic virtue, was that for Reiss, his art could only be successful insofar as it found patrons to support it and a public to understand it. Reiss’ modern interiors were cheerful and welcoming; his portraits of marginalized populations—Native Americans, Mexican peasants, and African Americans of the Harlem Renaissance as well as the offshore Georgia Sea Islands, invariably expressed the theme of a commonly shared human dignity.

    In New York, Reiss managed twin pursuits, becoming an influential teacher while maintaining a separate studio practice for his own work. He designed many well-known and well-loved commercial interiors, including, notably the chain of Longchamps restaurants in New York City and the splendid ballroom of the Hotel St. George in Brooklyn Heights. His Native American portrait work became part of the national visual culture when he acquired as a patron, Louis Hill, the owner of the Great Northern Railroad. In 1927 Hill purchased Reiss’ entire summer’s work, fifty-two portraits of Native Americans. The relationship with the railroad proved long lasting and multi-faceted. The Great Northern used Reiss’ Native American portraits to illustrate months in its annual promotional calendars. Reiss’ designs also adorned the railroad’s menus, poster, and other promotional materials. Meanwhile, he exhibited his work at the National Academy of Design, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Los Angeles Museum. In 1933, Reiss completed his designs for murals in the Cincinnati Union (Railroad) Terminal. These murals, threatened with destruction in 1972, were saved after a public hue and cry. Some remain in the former railroad station, now a cultural center, while others have been reinstalled at the Greater Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport, where they remain highly prized.

    Through all his various travels and projects, Reiss painted portraits. Carol Moon McDonald Gardner and her husband, Dozier Lee Gardner were mainstays of St. Louis society through the middle decades of the twentieth century. Carol Moon McDonald was born in 1909. She lived her whole life in the French Renaissance style mansion built in 1901 by her maternal grandfather, Joseph W. Moon, who had successfully converted his Moon Buggy Company to the fabrication of automobiles. In 1928, Carol McDonald married Dozier Lee Gardner, the son of Missouri’s 34th governor, Frederick Dozier Gardner. The Gardner family had also made their fortune in automobile manufacturing. The Gardners traveled frequently to various sporting and resort locales, including Hawaii, New Mexico, San Diego, and Wyoming. At home in St. Louis, they entertained frequently (the house included a ballroom) and were especially fond of costume balls. During World War II, Carol Gardner volunteered with the American Red Cross.

    It is not clear exactly when Reiss painted Carol McDonald. Family supposition is that the portrait may have marked the young woman’s debutante year in 1927, or perhaps the occasion of her engagement soon thereafter. She married in 1928 and is not wearing a wedding ring in the picture. Reiss painted a chic young woman, her hair in a fashionable “bob.” Her opera length pearls, elegant, tasteful, and expensive, are wrapped first in a choker and then playfully looped around the bow on her frock. She is seated on what appears to be a tapestry-print cushion and is set against a backdrop with a graceful tree and flower design.

    Reiss might have gone to St. Louis to consult with the artisans of the Ravenna Mosaics Company. In 1930, he engaged them to translate his drawings for the Cincinnati Railroad Terminal into intricately realized stained glass murals. Carol Moon Gardner also owned a second Reiss portrait, “Russian Girl,“ that always hung in a prominent place in her home.
  • More Information
    Documentation: Signed
    Period: 1920-1949
    Materials: Pastel on paper
    Condition: Excellent.
    Creation Date: 1927-28
    Styles / Movements: Realism
    Dealer Reference #: APG 20909D
    Incollect Reference #: 187445
  • Dimensions
    W. 25.75 in; H. 39.5 in;
    W. 65.41 cm; H. 100.33 cm;
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